- Paranoia and the Dynamics of Exclusion. by Lemert, Edwin, Sociometry; Mar1962, Vol. 25 Issue 1, p2-20.
The article reports on paranoid behavior. One of the few generalizations about psychotic behavior which sociologists have been able to make with a modicum of agreement and assurance is that such behavior is a result or manifestation of a disorder in communication between the individual and society. Paranoid persons are those whose inadequate social learning leads them in situations of unusual stress to incompetent social reactions. Out of the fragments of the social behavior of others the paranoid person symbolically organizes a pseudocommunity whose functions be perceives as focused on him. The general insightfulness of Cameron's analysis cannot be gainsaid and the usefulness of some of his concepts is easily granted. Yet a serious question must be raised, based upon empirical inquiry, as to whether in actuality the insidious qualities of the community to which the paranoid reacts are pseudo or a symbolic fabrication. The first tentative conclusions which are presented here were drawn from a study of factors influencing decisions to commit mentally disordered persons to hospitals, undertaken with the cooperation of the Los Angeles County Department of Health in 1952. This included interviews by means of schedules with members of 44 families in Los Angeles County who were active petitioners in commitment proceedings and the study of 35 case records of public health officer commitments. Organizational crises involving a paranoid relationship arise in several ways. The individual may act in ways which arouse intolerable anxieties in others, who demand that "something be done." Again, by going to higher authority or making appeals outside the organization, he may set in motion procedures which leave those in power no other choke than to take action.
- Societal Reaction to Deviant Behavior: Problems of Theory and Method, by John I. Kitsuse, Social Problems, Vol. 9, No. 3 (Winter, 1962) , pp. 247-256.
Sociological theory and research in the area traditionally known as social pathology have been concerned primarily with the classification and analysis of deviant forms of behavior and relatively little attention has been given to societal reactions to deviance. This article discusses some of the theoretical and methodological issues posed by the problem of societal reactions to deviant behavior and report on a preliminary attempt to formulate a research design which specifically takes them into account. This article propose to shift the focus of theory and research from the forms of deviant behavior to the processes by which persons come to be defined as deviant by others. Deviance may be conceived as a process by which the members of a group, community, or society interpret behavior as deviant, define persons who so behave as a certain kind of deviant and accord them the treatment considered appropriate to such deviants. In this article, this conception of deviance and societal reaction will be applied to the processes by which persons come to be defined and treated as homosexuals.
"This article propose to shift the focus of theory and research from the forms of deviant behavior to the processes by which the members of a group"とのこと。具体的にはhomosexualについて。これは読んでおきたい。
- Trice, Harrison M.; Roman, Paul Michael.DELABELING, RELABELING, AND ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS. Social Problems, Spring70, Vol. 17 Issue 4, p538-546.
Labeling theory implicitly assumes that deviant careers are relatively permanent. Little systematic effort has been devoted to consideration of delabeling and relabeling processes. Alcoholics Anonymous appears to be a unique agency for carrying out successful delabeling and relabeling of stigmatized deviants. This success appears to be accounted for largely by A.A.'s use of the repentant role available in American society, constructing a "comeback" for "repentant" alcoholics based on their apparently intense adherence to middle-class ideals coupled with their repudiation of the "hedonistic underworld" to which they "traveled" as alcoholics. The repentant role gains further strength from the status-enhancing effects of the "skid-row image," and the congruence of A.A. with American value orientations. A.A. promulgates an "allergy" concept of alcoholism which is parallel to mental health agencies' emphasis on the illness concept of behavior disorders. The allergy concept appears to play a relatively minor role in the process of public reacceptance.
- DAVID BROWN, MARGARET SHEEHAN, Outcome of Alcoholism: the structure of patient attributions as to what causes change. Addiction, Volume 82 Page 533 May 1987.